Bladder Stones – In Animals and Humans
Bladder stones are stones that occur in the urinary tract and the urinary bladder. There can be various reasons for the formation of bladder or kidney stones. One of the prime factors is a higher concentration of mineral salts in the urine. The excess mineral begins to precipitate outwards and forms layers of deposits. Alkaline solutions have a greater degree of minerals. Animals like dogs and cats have naturally acidic urine due to which, a change in concentration can result in stones even their system.
Basically, a simple understanding is that, minerals dissolve in acidic medium. In a more alkaline medium, it is difficult for them to dissolve and which is why, the slow formation of stones takes place. This is how bladder stones are formed.
Urine is composed of uric acid, bile salts, potassium and other wastes that are to be discarded from the body. The urea that is present in the urine when broken down into ammonia makes it more alkaline. In animals, microorganisms like bacteria are generally responsible for this break down of urea to ammonia incidentally increasing the alkalinity of the liquid waste. If the pet has had a urinary infection, then the debris of such an infection can also act as a platform to begin the formation of stones. When the salts of amino acids and urates in dogs increase, they become more prone to developing stones. For instance, ammonium urate stones are commonly seen in Dalmatian Dogs.
On the other hand, stones seen in human beings are calcium oxalate compositions. They can occur singularly or multiple in numbers in the bladders of individuals. Initially, it is possible that the patient does not realize the formation of stones, but consequent pain during passage of urine and lower abdomen aches are common. When the bladder is overly filled, the obstruction begins to cause pain. Sometimes the infection can cause bleeding along with restricted flow of urine.
Although the exact reason for the formation of bladder stones is not known, healthcare experts and researchers believe that diet and fluid intake could be responsible. Treatment and operative techniques are available for cure. In most cases, an operation is performed and the stones are removed form the abdomen. Other methods include minimally invasive techniques like inclusion of scopes into the body for discarding stones. But to avoid formation of stones and for a healthy living, it is advised to drink of a lot of fluid and maintain a healthy diet.